It has become almost a cliché to say that the LWE situation is the most serious internal threat facing the country. Naxalism has been operating in several parts of the country. It has been there from the late 60s and 70s and different parts of the country have been affected with different levels of naxal violence. It has been tackled in different ways in West Bengal, in Kerala, in Andhra and so on and so forth, Telangana situation was there earlier. A significant change came about with the merger of the Peoples War Group and the MCC to form the CPI (Maoist) in 2004. Thus, there had been a fusion of the ideology with the armed groups, both coming together for the first time.
I particularly want to spend some time on what I call as “what are the objectives of CPI (Maoist)?”. There has been a lot of debate and discussion among intellectuals and NGOs on this. Everybody has been talking about the naxal problem and the Maoist problem, and sometimes get confused between the two. The objective of the CPI (Maoist) Party is the armed overthrow of the Indian State. The people must realize before anybody says that I am a Maoist or I am for what the CPI (Maoists) is, that he is in favour of the armed overthrow of the Indian State. They do not have any belief in parliamentary democracy. In fact they call parliament a pig-sty. It is part of their official documents and statements which have been made. Documents which we have captured reveal some of the strategy and tactics of the Indian Revolution by the CPI (Maoist). It is basically a text book, which they teach and I feel it would be very useful to see some of what they are talking about. They are talking about building up of armies. They want finally to draw out and inflict decisive defeat on the armed forces of 'the enemy'. They talk of the Indian State as the enemy. Therefore, the first priority should be given to the work in the principal strategic areas in accordance with the line of protracted people's war with the concrete conditions of India. Building peoples army, establishing base areas, etc., to liberate the entire country with the people's army. Without mobilizing masses into innumerable struggles and raising their political consciousness, over throw of the State is not possible. Of course, they quote a lot from Mao's words, Lenin's words and so on and so forth. They talk about how they have to infiltrate. They want to influence the workers in the trade unions, which can be done through legal trade union organizations, workers' magazines, pamphleteering etc., and by sending comrades to secretly develop factional work from within the industry and the existing trade unions, within existing organizations. They are all part ofthe grand strategy of the CPI (Maoists). They talkabout city movements. In other words, theobjective is to gradually gain the military strength to overwhelm 'the enemy' as 'the revolutionarywar' draws out and finally inflict decisive defeaton 'the armed forces of the enemy'. The Indian State in one sense, for the first time, is facing an enemy which is looking at the armed overthrow of the Indian State.
If you look at the approach and the methodology, we use the word naxalites broadly, in order to avoid confusion with approach and methodology of the Maoists. The Maoists' objective is initially to develop base areas which they would like to develop as liberated areas. They typically operate in what they see as a perceived administrative vacuum in many of these areas. It is not something which they are responsible for; the responsibility is of the Indian State. There is an administrative vacuum because these are remote areas where the State Governments or the Central Government has not posted people in those areas. So there is a little bit of an administrative vacuum in many of these areas. There are some areas as in Malkangiri area. Many of you may not know that as a result of a dam which came up in late 1960s, there are more than 141 villages which got isolated. Believe me if I say today many people will be surprised those 141 villages have not been seen by anybody in either the State or Central Government since 1969. Nobody has ever gone to them. There is not a single road, there is no BDO, no village officer, but we know they exist because the Maoists have come there, been their friends, indoctrinated them. You can call it neglect if you want. Many areas in the fringes of the administration, where you had the weakness of the administration, is where the real basic growth of the Maoist movement has taken place. People are not posted in all these remote areas because of lack of development of infrastructure, schools, hospitals and so on and so forth. It is termed as a punishment posting. Everybody wants to work close to urban areas, close to State capitals and for postings in these remote areas you don't send the best people sometimes and therefore you post people who are punished and persons who are punished go there and, literally, in one sense, take out their punishment on the people.
The Maoist strategy is that not only do they oppose development, development as they see it, development in a parliamentary democracy, but also they take advantage of this feeling of neglect in remote underdeveloped areas. It is a very significant aspect to be brought out. People do not obey the law and in many of the areas because of the lack of administration. It is the officers at the lower level who are all powerful in the absence of the district collector or superior officers who never visit. It is the village officer or the forest officer or the sub-inspector in the police stations etc., who have authority. And the Maoists what they have really done is to show that this authority is really a paper tiger. They tell the villagers in an isolated area that they could go and catch hold of the village officer, catch hold of the forest guard, catch hold of the station house officer, tie him to a tree and tell the villagers, look this guy has been troubling you, he is just another human being and you can beat him up. He is just as much as flesh and blood as any of us. Take a gun, shoot him and once you have shot him, you realize in one sense that the myth of administrative power or the aura of state power which is there, disappears and you are able to get what they say the authority of the State in many of these areas. That is what has happened through violent attacks on the police, the field level functionaries etc. They say they are ineffective which is why when they attack a police station, the message they are trying to tell is, look if the police can't protect themselves, where are they going to protect you. They go after police informers. In last year's little over 500 killings, about 300 of them are allegedly police informers because they don't want anybody to be giving information to the State authorities. They deliver rough and ready justice. A climate of fear is created whereby if you want to survive in these areas, you have to be unflinchingly loyal only to the Maoists. Many a times, they come back and say we made a mistake and so on and so forth but by that time, the life is lost. It is Kangaroo justice and they project tribals as victims and not the beneficiaries of development. Then as I have mentioned earlier, as a result of this book on Strategy and Tactics of the Indian Revolution, they have built up a variety of front organizations, and I do not wish to criticize any of these organizations for they are unwitting pawns of the Maoists. I still remember an article by Director ICRIER, Rajiv Kumar. Many of you may know him, he wrote that he joined the naxal movement in 1969, went to the jungles thinking it is a great idea. Everybody is a revolutionary or a communist when they are young and then he said they asked me to go and kill somebody. It was then he realized that this was not what he expected to be doing as part of the revolution or change. He ran away from there and came back. This is where the various front organisations get trapped in for very genuine causes but the very genuine causes, also to an extent, support the Maoists, in their long term strategy to overthrow of the Indian State. The overthrow of the Indian state is not something which they are willing to do tomorrow or day after. Their strategy according to these books is that they are looking to overthrow the State around 2050. There are some documents talking of 2060. They are not looking at the overthrow of the Indian State in 2012 or 2013. It is a long steady progress. I am always reminded of that example of the frog in the hot water. When you put a frog in a flask and you heat it up slowly the frog will never jump out, because it is slowly being cooked to perfection. But if you put a frog in hot water, it jumps out and escapes. This is exactly what has happened to the Indian State over the last ten years, when Maoists have slowly built up their movement. It is extremely slow. The power of the left-wing extremist groups is immense and they can in one sense if they want to, bring many sectors of the Indian economy to its knees even today but they don't want to do that. They won't do it today because they know that the State will come down very hard and they are not fully prepared to face the full onslaught of the State machinery and therefore they will move very slowly. This is how that we have lost areas and control over the last so many years.
If you see the violence profile of the left wing extremism itself, it has been going up year after year. Last year was possibly one of the bloodiest years and our estimate is this year it is only likely to go up whether we like it or not. Because for the first time I think in the last 8-9 months, the State has decided that we will tackle this head on. We will no longer allow this policy of continued expansion by the Maoists to continue unabated and the State has now decided that this must stop and we will take back areas which we have lost. Areas which you might call 'liberated' where officers would not go and where there is no civil administration. We are in one sense taking back those areas and much of the shouting and violence which is going on is because some of the areas we have, in fact, started to take back. It is a very small area, something like 4000 sq.km. We have now taken back areas which were not there in our control last year. It is now slowly getting into our control and we are getting back civil administration slowly into these areas.
Let me now give you a glance of what the left wing extremist violence is like. If you see the 908 killings which took place last year, it is the highest since 1971 when you had 849 killings at the height of what you call naxalism. We have crossed that. It is quite likely that it will go up in 2010 and perhaps even in 2011 before, in fact, the tide will begin to turn. Almost 50% of the activities are in Jharkhand, another 20-25% in Chattisgarh which is the real backbone of the left wing extremist movement. In Maharashtra's Gadchiroli district, they have got some portions under their control and you can see that to a certain extent the armed cadres are building up year by year. They have three basic modules, the real armed cadres which is the real fighting force and I wish to mention that we have not yet hit even 5% of this real hardcore force yet. All the fighting which is taking place is at the next level, the militia and what they call as the village supporters and so on. These are the ones with which we are interacting. The real armed cadres are yet to be tackled. So, that is why I say that we still have a long bloody battle ahead of us because we still have not hit the real fighting machine which is still held back. They don't want to bring it into direct conflict with state armed forces yet. The CPI (Maoist) is responsible for 90-94% of the incidents. They use IEDs considerably, mobilize through front organizations and are very highly motivated and very well trained. I am quite certain that there may be some ex-army or some paramilitary people who are helping them because they do a rigorous post mortem of their incidents. For every attack which has been done, they do a post mortem of the attack and they come out with an analysis which is as good as done by the armed forces of any country. They analyzed how they went about targeting the particular target, how they surveyed it for six months or eight months and how they detected various weaknesses. In some cases, when they actually carried out the attack, they found that their knowledge was not sufficient and they first faced certain setbacks. Their analysis is very well documented. Like any other military doctrine, they bring out bulletins for circulation among their cadres so that everybody is aware of the lessons learnt.
The approach of the Central Government in one sense has been that you cannot deal with the naxal and the Maoist situation just by saying I will do socioeconomic development. It is a very crude illustration but somebody told me in Kolkata that the Marxists who wanted to settle the issue politically called the Maoists for a discussion on the respective strategy for people's development. The Marxists would convince the Maoists that their line is the correct line. After the statement of the Marxists was over, the Maoists leader said, “have you finished”? The Marxists said, “yes, “now you listen to my line”. The Maoists took out a gun and shot the Marxist representative and said, “anyone else want to come for political discussions?”. In West Midnapore alone they have killed 159 party workers from the area committee member to the grass-root party workers from June to December 2009. You really cannot have any discussion with the Maoists because they don't believe in discussion as a matter of any principle. They only believe in armed struggle to overthrow the Indian state and therefore even a discussion is only a ploy to regroup or buy time because they don't believe in parliamentary democracy. It is only a strategy and I am sure if a few of their top leaders get arrested and so on, they will be far more willing to say they will come for talks just to get them released or regroup but they will not come until the pressure is there. My own assessment is that the Maoists are not under much pressure at the moment. Therefore, all these talks of discussion and cessation of hostilities and so on and so forth are more to confuse the situation rather than anything else. My assessment is that they will start feeling the pressure maybe about a year or so from now when we get our acts together fully.
You might ask why we are taking so much time to get our acts together. Part of the reason is that the police force, I don't have to say it, is in one sense possibly one of the most neglected, exploited, abused forces in India. We have over 3 lakh vacancies in the police force. As against a normal strength of 220 policemen to a lakh population, we have only an average of 138 in the country today. For example, in Bihar, the police to a lakh population ratio is only 56. It is one fourth of what should be normal and I am comparing it with Delhi which has 480 or western countries which have in this range 400-500. West Bengal is something like 82 policemen per lakh population. So, when you have such low strength and I have seen many of the police stations in some of these States. They have a police station where the sanctioned strength is about 12 and the actual strength because of casual leave, etc. is about 6 or 7 people and they are to police a naxalite infested area. So, you can just imagine what they can do. They just lock the door and play cards inside and the naxals are allowed to do what they want to do outside. They don't bother the Maoists, the Maoists don't bother them either. So, if you don't have 50, 60, 80 people in a police station well armed, well guarded police station etc., you will find this situation of lawlessness and anarchy.
In fact the 13th Finance Commission report which has come out the first time and Rs.2200 crores have been allotted for police training to the States. The 13th Finance Commission has possibly done a yeoman's service for the police force in the country and for the first time it has been realized that police training is so important. If you don't have well trained policemen, you cannot effectively maintain law and order. If you see states like Bihar and Jharkhand, they were separated 10 years ago, but Bihar has still not got a basic police training institute. Many policemen who are just recruited barely do a basic elementary training. There are States where the sanctioned strength of some police training institute is zero and where the people have been posted in an adhoc manner without any training. I went to Manipur the other day to their police training institute. The capacity is 1100 and they have got4800 people to train. All training classes and everything else have been converted into barracks and the classes are held in the open. They are all being trained under the trees. So you have gone back to the old days of gurukul training for constables. You are teaching them law and legal forensics etc., under the trees. It is a tremendous neglect which has happened over the years and that is why taking steps to increase the effectiveness of the police force is going to take a few years. These 3 lakh vacancies will take about 3 years to fill up. Then a year of training. So, in about four years you will fill up these 3 lakh vacancies. That is only to bring it to 140 per lakh population, not even 220. Otherwise, there is a need of another 5 lakh people, so you need about 8 lakh additional policemen. I always wonder why when giving jobs is such an important thing, why chief ministers have not filled up these vacancies all these years.
If you look at the government with the type of the situation and the constraints that we have, we are really looking at the six most affected States– Bihar, West Bengal, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Maharashtra – for focused action because it is not possible for us in one sense to focus everywhere. Even here we are focusing in key districts. The entire strategy is primarily basically to put in the local forces and additional para military forces which are coming in. Take back what we call as areas where there is no civil administration, and then once you have provided the basic security by establishing a police station, by establishing a security grid across the area, then the civil administration literally moves into providing basic facilities like NREGA scheme, roads, health facilities, doctors. The work is to be done on a very concentrated manner in these areas. The deficiency in one sense is so immense. We had a meeting with some of the district magistrates recently. In one of the districts the total number of MBBS doctors is only 3 in the district. If you have three doctors in a district what kind of health services can you provide? In West Midnapore district there are 4000 vacancies for teachers. 4000 in one district! So, these are critical areas which unless we start focusing on what we call as effective governance, making sure that these people are there. A lot of relaxation is being given in recruitment and we are saying that you can appoint doctors on contract basis, pay them extra money, provide them incentives. In Maharashtra's Gadchiroli district, that district alone as a result of the incidents that have taken place in the last two years, has now got 2000 policemen whereas many districts have got a total strength of barely 100 policemen in some of the insurgency affected areas. So, here you have 2000 and they are going to raise that to 3000. So, when you have 3000 policemen in a district and half the policemen recruited from the local tribes and local people etc., you are able to then maintain law and order. In Gadchiroli district, you will be surprised that the DM mentioned that 3/4th of the district had no mobile phone connectivity. Therefore, he stated need for satellite phones. Therefore, apart from trying to fill the large vacancies in the State forces, we are looking at special incentives. All these people posted in these remote areas get 15 to 30% extra allowances to work in these areas. Protection of the police building is vital because if the police cannot protect itself, it cannot protect the people. Specialized training, intelligence based operations, and I must say that the intelligence based operatives are slowly getting us results. We have arrested 2 politburo members in the last six months. We have arrested 4 central committee members, we have arrested another State committee member Deepak Talgu in West Bengaland we are slowly starting to get that intelligence. People are going to come and give information only where they feel that Government is going to stay there. In each of these areas, the central para military forces and the state police forces are going to stay there for at least three years till such time as basic administrative infrastructure like roads, PDE, Schools, hospitals, everything is set up. Then only they will move to the next area and so on and so forth. Therefore, our basic aim in one sense in conclusion is basically to build up capacities in the State police which is absolutely essential and for which I think the 13th Finance Commission has provided funds. I think next year about Rs.500 crores will come for police training itself. In the last 20 years they would not have got for police training that amount of money. In the next year alone they will get about Rs.500 crores. In the meantime, with deployment, sharing of intelligence, inter State coordination and providing basic services there is a slow progress.
There are many more problems which I have not touched. The causes are many starting from the origins of the Forest Conservation Act. We had Forest Conservation Act, which created problems because even the minor forest produce was the property of the government. With the recent Forest Act, we have said that it is the property of the tribals. You had lakhs of cases by the forest guard against the tribals for collecting even minor forest produce. Some of them have been withdrawn and directions have been given to withdraw the remaining cases. Tribal land rights are another issue which needs to be focused upon. We have looked at what I call the wild life sanctuaries which came in and we had all these wild life sanctuaries whether it is a tiger reserve or lion reserve and so on and so forth. The first priority (I am not blaming anybody), became the animal rather than the people who stayed in the forest. Therefore those who stayed in the forest were prime targets for the Maoists etc, to say look the government is more concerned about the animals than you and therefore you come on our side, the government is against you. There are so many issues which are interlinked in this entire thing and these are all issues which have to be tackled from land acquisition to power plants which have come up in many of these areas. The Power Plants supply power to urban areas but the villages surrounding the power plants are without power and therefore they did not get any benefit out of a power plant where they lost their land. Now polices are changing to say that every power plant which comes up should have an area around the power plant where literally free power would be supplied, so that all the villagers feel that a power plant coming there means some benefits to them in perpetuity. The same goes with the mining. You must have seen the new draft Mining Act which is on the website. We hope to bring it before the Parliament shortly where again you have provisions in the Mining Act that not only to compensate and rehabilitate but also put some portion of the profit into a separate fund which will go for the benefit of the tribals and others who are residing around that mining area/lease area and that would be again in perpetuity so long as that company is there. These are some of the other measures that are coming in. It is a slow process. We have a long way to improve the governance, the State police and the State administration. I am quite confident that the strength of the Parliamentary democracy will prevail in the long term. People will realize that armed violence will not bring them any development. People have seen such armed revolution in the past and it did not lead anywhere. They talked of Maoism and they know where Maoism finally ended up in China, and where it has come to. That is the key issue, which everybody will have to focus on. The states will have to focus on many of these issues.
1. Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, has said more than one time, get downing in 2004, that the Maoist job is the most serious internal challenge that the state is faced with. This fact was reiterated by Pranab Mukherjee, President of India on the Eve on 64th Republic Day on 25 Jan 2013 by stating “ Figures mean nil to those who do non profit from them. We must move instantly, otherwise the current pockets of struggle, frequently described as ‘Naxalite ‘ force, could get far more unsafe dimensions ” .
2. The beginning of Naxal motion in India can be traced back to 1960s when Naxalites started runing from assorted parts of the state. However, Naxalism has emerged as a major internal security menace since amalgamation of People ‘s War Group ( PWG ) and Maoist Communist Centre ( MCC ) on 21 Sep 2004 and formed Communist Party of India ( Maoist ) to contend against the Indian State.
3. Harmonizing to ‘Strategy and Tacticss of Indian Revolution 2004“ , the declared aim of CPI ( Maoist ) is ‘the ictus of political power ‘ and the work in urban countries has a particular importance in their radical work. The apprehension of senior leaders of CPI ( Maoist ) from metropolitan metropoliss, their engagement in work stoppages in Honda/ Maruti Factory at Gurgaon etc. indicates the execution of naxalite political orientation in urban countries of India.
Statement of Problem
4. The intent of this paper is to analyze the spread of Left Wing Extremism ( LWE ) in Urban Areas as an enlargement of LWE in India. The spread of LWE in urban countries will non merely back up the bing LWE but besides has the capableness to germinate as a coiling urban insurgence.
5. Naxalism has been caused due to the socio – economic jobs of rural India and the spacial spread of LWE to urban countries is improbable to prolong.
Justification of the survey
6. The survey has been focused on urban countries due to following grounds: –
( a ) Population shacking in urban countries of India has increased from 11.4 % in 1901 to 28.53 % in 2001 and has reached 31.16 % in 2011 nose count. The uninterrupted displacement of population has a direct impact on the LWE which started from the rural country.
( B ) Urban countries, being the Centre of power, offer suited conditions for naxalites to accomplish their declared aim in a swifter and earlier clip frame.
( degree Celsius ) The impact of naxalism in urban countries has far more reaching effects than the rural insurgence.
7. This survey concentrates on handiness of conditions in the mega metropoliss of India to transport frontward the LWE to these countries in conformity with the latest paperss released by CPI ( Maoist ) towards its urban position.
8. The research is based on available publications and stuff on the cyberspace on the topic and dressed ores on spread of LWE in urban countries of India. The positions reflected in this paper are wholly personal. Wherever the positions of other authors have been included, the same has been indicated through footers.
Administration of the Dissertation
9. The subject will be analysed under the undermentioned caputs: –
( a ) Introduction and Methodology.
( B ) Genesis and Evolution of LWE in India.
( degree Celsius ) Urbanization of LWE.
( vitamin D ) Future of Urban LWE.
( vitamin E ) Recommended Strategy to incorporate spread of LWE in urban countries.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Decision.
CHAPTER – Two
GENESIS AND EVOLUTION OF LWE IN INDIA
“ Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun ” .A
– Monoamine oxidase Tse TungA
10. The LWE in India has its roots from the thought of communism in the state. Before independency, a subdivision of leaders argued that communism and socialism are ideal for a society like ours, which is divided along caste, faith and cultural lines. They believed that it was the lone manner to liberate the huge figure of hapless people in India and make a classless and merely society. This led to the foundation of the Communist Party of India ( CPI ) on 26 Dec 1925. However, the prohibition on communist activities by British governments precluded the Communists to construct a countrywide administration.
11. The undermentioned runs helped the CPI to derive a strong clasp in societal and economically backward countries: –
( a ) Campaign against the barbarous repression of provincials by feudal landlords during the government of Nizam in the Telangana part.
( B ) Tebhaga Movement. It was led by “ Kisan Sabha ” – provincials ‘ forepart of CPI – in 1946 to increase the harvest portion of provincials from half to two-thirds, thereby cut downing the portion of feudal landlords to one-third.
12. After independency, the CPI emerged as the largest resistance party at national degree. Post 1962 Sino-Indian war, CPI split in two parts: –
( a ) CPI ( M ) ( Pro-Chinese ) . They agreed with China that the Soviet Union was following “ Revisionism ” , “ Socialistic Imperialism ” and “ Sectarianism ” . They besides backed Chinese version of the events and blamed India to be the attacker in 1962 war.
( B ) CPI ( Pro-Soviet ) .
13. While the Communist parties were fighting on ideological issues, Charu Majumdar, a immature communist leader, was busy fixing his ain programs to show a “ revolution ” in India. His experience of “ Tebhaga Movement ” enabled him to organize armed rebellion. He was influenced by Mao Tse Tung and wanted to emulate the Chinese revolution in India. During the old ages 1965-1967, Charu Majumdar wrote a series of eight articles reasoning that the state of affairs in India was ripe for the armed rebellion. His paperss formed the foundation for Naxalism in India and were called the “ Historic eight paperss ” .A He was opposed to CPI/ CPI ( M ) line of working within the model of Indian fundamental law. He argued that the Indian authorities was a semi-colonial, feudalistic and imperial entity that needed to be overthrown.
Causes of LWE
14. The generation and development of naxalism in India can be attributed to following causes: –
( a ) Ideological Inspiration. The success of communist revolutions in
Russia under Lenin and in China under Mao, which aimed at making a classless society to supply equal chances to all citizens, motivated their followings in India to convey such a revolution.
( B ) Support from China. Chinese Communist Party ( CPC ) openly backed the left adventurists in India. People ‘s Daily, the official organ of the CPC, published an column on 05 Jul 1967, titled “ Spring Thunder Breaks over India ” , where it hailed the Naxalbari rebellion because they believed that ‘armed battle is the lone correct route for the Indian revolution ‘.
( degree Celsius ) Leadership. The outgrowth of radical leaders like Charu Mazumdar, Kanu Sanyal in West Bengal and C Pulla Reddy and Seetharamaiah in Telengana boosted the motion.
( vitamin D ) Land Reforms. The countries of West Bengal and Telengana were celebrated for landlords working the landless workers. Absence of land reforms added fuel to the fire.
( vitamin E ) Absence of Development. The practical absence of civic comfortss like imbibing H2O, nutrient insecurity, wellness attention, sanitation, equal lodging instruction, employment chances, electricity and substructure alienated the people from the authorities machinery.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Social Inequalities. The dalits and tribals suffer from legion discriminatory and exclusionary patterns in every walk of life and at all phases denying them entitlements and equal entree to chances by the higher caste groups.
( g ) Structural Violence. The societal construction in India is embedded in the caste based Hindu societal order. The landless are exploited in footings of low rewards, long hours of work, debt-bondage, mortifying intervention and physical assault in the instance of non-compliance of employer ‘s orders.
( J ) Gaps in Implementation.
( I ) The execution of PCR Act, 1976 is hapless.
( two ) Land Rights. Procedure and pattern related anomalousnesss in disposal of land instances, mandatory acquisition of land by the authorities and big scale migration of the non-tribals.
( three ) Non execution of Scheduled Tribes and other Traditional Forest Dwellers ( Recognition of Rights ) Act, 2006.
( four ) Labour Welfare. The Minimum Wages Act, Equal Remuneration Act and Child Labour Act are violated.
( V ) Reservation. Stiff opposition from the higher caste groups who resort to frequent judicial proceeding and unfastened agitation against it.
( six ) Development. Non allotment of financess for Particular Component Plan and Tribal Sub-Plan by the province authoritiess.
( seven ) Engagement. Compromise of elective campaigners from reserved constituencies. Non amendment of Panchayati Raj Torahs in conformity with PESA, 1996.
15. Political orientation. The CPI ( Maoist ) describes India as backward, semi-colonial and semifeudal. It is committed to Marxism-Leninism-Maoism theory. Its aim is to pay drawn-out people ‘s war on the lines propounded by Mao, seize/capture state/political power and announce a New Democratic Revolution ( NDR ) , under the leading of the agricultural category. This NDR would be conducted through guerilla warfare by set uping base countries in the small towns and so encircling the towns and metropoliss, before the concluding Long March to capture political power. The CPI ( Maoist ) considers the Indian caste system as “ objectionable ” and holds that the dalits are “ victims of untouchability, caste favoritism and upper caste jingoism ” . The battle against casteism and untouchability should besides be carried on in the ideological, political and cultural domains. In order to progress the already on-going revolution, the CPI ( Maoist ) has identified the principal and immediate undertakings before the party. These include: –
( a ) Intensification and advancing of people ‘s war to set up people ‘s political power.
( B ) Constructing a mighty mass motion against the imperialist the policies of liberalization, denationalization, globalization inspired by them.
( degree Celsius ) Exposing, insulating and get the better ofing Hindu fascist forces, besides exposing all other fundamentalist forces.
( vitamin D ) Resisting and get the better ofing province repression and demanding the abrogation of all black Torahs.
( vitamin E ) Contending US and Indian expansionism and hegemony.
Development of Naxalism in India
16. First Phase: Naxalbari. Naxal force started as an agricultural rebellion in 1967 by the Santhal provincials of Naxalbari territory of West Bengal. They were led by radical Communist leaders like Charu Mazumdar and Kanu Sanyal. This uprising received the support of CPC. However, subsequent Naxalite mottos like “ China ‘s Chairman is our Chairman, ” led the Chinese to deride them as childish Communists. They formed the 3rd Communist Party – Communist Party of India – Marxist-Leninist ( CPI ( ML ) ) . It turned towards violent obliteration of category enemies through rural rebellions in Bihar, Srikakulam in Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal ( Debra, Gopiballabpur and Burdwan territories ) .
17. By 1970, it began to come in the urban countries of Calcutta. Between 1970 and 1971, there were 4,000 incidents of naxalite force. Concerted constabulary operations were launched. These culminated in Operation Steeple Chase1 ( 1 July-15 August 1971 ) in which the ground forces provided the outer cordon for joint operations with the constabulary. This broke the dorsum of the motion and crushed the first agricultural rebellion in India. It is notable, nevertheless, that this rebellion occurred in the fields of West Bengal and Bihar where the communicating substructure was reasonably good developed and gave the distinguishable advantage of a vehicle-based mobility deferential to the security forces. It besides merits accent that the Santhal folks were mostly armed with bows, pointers, dash and lances. The naxalite motions besides suffered serious demoralization and a series of splits ( pro and anti-Lin Biao cabals ) . It weakened from 1972-77. The infliction of the exigency led to a major crackdown that brought the motion to a practical deadlock. The Maoist Communist Centre ( MCC ) had emerged in Bihar. This led to the formation of caste ground forcess like the Ranvir Sena and the battle degenerated into caste force.
18. Second Phase: People ‘s War Group ( PWG ) . In the 1980s, there was a 2nd rush of the left flying force. The assorted naxalite groups had merged in April 1980 to organize the PWG. Insurgency in the fields was easy combated as the mobilization, firepower and motion regardful ballad wholly with the security forces. In response, the PWG shifted the battle towards the forested tribal countries in Adilabad in Andhra Pradesh. The terrain here was far more hard and the forest folks better suited for guerilla warfare than the lower caste provincials of the fields. Forest Committees and armed squads or dalams were formed. The battle, therefore, shifted from Bengal to Andhra Pradesh and Bihar and from there it spread to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa by 1991.
19. The Third Phase: Left Wing Violence. From 1990 onwards, India began to globalize its economic system. Liberalisation was opposed strongly by the left wing extremists. A series of amalgamations now took topographic point to beef up the Maoist rush. On 21 Sep 2004, the PWG of Kondapally Seetaramiah and MCC of Kanai Chatterjee eventually merged to give a pan-India orientation to LWE in the signifier of CPI ( Maoist ) . The spread of extremism thereafter has been dramatic as shown in the undermentioned chart: -C: UsersSUDESHDesktop
axal to maoist.jpg
CHART 1: Fatality IN LEFT WING EXTREMISM 2005 – 2012
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/maoist/data_sheets/ human deaths naxal05-11.htm ( Accessed 26 Jan 2013 )
20. Phases of People ‘s Protracted War. The three phases of drawn-out war, enunciated by Mao Tse Tung, during the Chinese civil war are as under: –
( a ) The Strategic Defensive. In this stage, the nascent guerilla administration was formed and increased its influence by selective terrorist actions against the province officials and their protagonists – its purpose at this phase was survival and consolidation.
( B ) The Strategic Stalemate. Mao so used infinite to widen the war in clip and wash up the province of its will to contend. Company and battalion-size guerilla sets were formed and extended the war in infinite and clip for one to two decennaries by using hit and run tactics of foraies and ambuscades.
( degree Celsius ) The Strategic Counter-Offensive. Once the phase was set by drawn-out guerilla warfare, the regular People ‘s Liberation Army was formed to consequence the switch to conventional military operations that would present the putsch de grace and destruct the exhausted armed forces of the province.
21. Administration of CPI ( Maoists ) . The party construction at the cardinal degree consists of the Polit Bureau ( PB ) , the Central Committee ( CC ) and the Central Military Commission ( CMC ) . The undermentioned sections are under the direct bid of CMC: –
( a ) The Central Technical Committee ( CTC ) .
( B ) Regional Commands ( RCs ) .
( degree Celsius ) Particular Action Teams ( SATs ) .
( vitamin D ) Military Intelligence ( MI ) .
( vitamin E ) Publications and Editorial Board of ‘Jung ‘ .
( degree Fahrenheit ) Central Military Instructors Team ( CMIT ) .
( g ) Communications.
( H ) Tactical Counter Offensive Campaign ( TCOC ) .
( J ) Peoples Liberation Guerilla Army ( PLGA ) .
22. The CPI ( Maoist ) besides have an intelligence set-up known as the Peoples Security Service ( PSS ) and at the State degree, there are State Committees, State Military Commission, etc. , traveling down to Zonal Committees, Area Committees, etc.
Scheme and Tacticss of Left Wing Extremists
23. The extremism by LWE can be described as a “ democratic revolution through tactical offenses in the drawn-out people ‘s war of strategic defensive ” at one degree and “ terrorist act masking itself as category battle and societal justness ” at another degree. Over the last three decennaries, Naxallites have developed their schemes with the aim to disorganize and confound by political relations and licking by force. They have formulated their expansive scheme of drawn-out war, military scheme of armed battle with guerrilla manner and political scheme of utilizing the democratic contradictions of Indian civil order to their advantage.
24. LWE is following both place grown every bit good as borrowed schemes and tactics from Peru, China, Vietnam and Nepal. Few of their foreign borrowed schemes are as under: –
( a ) China. The following Chinese tactics have been blindly followed by the Indian Maoists: –
Use few to get the better of many and utilize many to oppress few.
( two ) Misleading the security forces and catch them unawares.
( three ) Tactics of concentration to carry on foraies and scattering to protect oneself and politically organize multitudes.
( four ) Tactics of contending no conflict unprepared.
( B ) Vietnam. Maoists are utilizing the Vietnamese tactics of guerrilla warfare and nomadic warfare and even the motto of Dien Bien Phu ‘Dare to win and make bold to contend ‘ .
25. The undermentioned schemes have been adopted by the Maoists through assorted PB and CC meetings in the recent yesteryear: –
( a ) All India Special Conference of CPI ( ML ) , 1995 adopted Joint Action Committee for democratic rights.
( B ) Ninth Congress of PW, 2001 adopted Formation of a peoples guerrilla ground forces, regional agency, cardinal publication agency, sub-committee on political instruction, sub-committee on mahila motion etc.
( degree Celsius ) CC Meeting, 2004 provisionally decided to change over PGA to PLGA.
( vitamin D ) Fourth Meeting of PB, 2006 formulated the scheme to contend Salwa Judum, start international web sites and internationalise issues.
( vitamin E ) Ninth Congress of CPI ( Maoists ) , 2007 formulated the schemes to transform prisons into political universities, turning PLGA into PLA, guerrilla war into nomadic war, support to nationality battles, dalit battles, SEZ and displacement battles etc.
Support of LWE
26. Beginning of Income. The Maoists run an luxuriant extortion web in the ruddy corridor to fund the extremism. The all-India one-year aggregation of CPI ( Maoists ) is estimated to be near to Rs. 2000 croreas per the seized cashbooks and other documents of Maoists. The assorted beginnings of financess are as following: –
( a ) Party Members. Membership fee is collected from parttime Party Members in conformity to their income.
( B ) Local Population. Villagers or tribals are asked to donate a twenty-four hours ‘s earning every month to the party fund as a item of transporting on the tribal ‘s battle. Maoists terrorise industrialists, man of affairs, contractors, tendu foliage bargainers and even hapless villagers. The extortion can either be hard currency or sort i.e grains, pulsations or other stuff.
( degree Celsius ) Government Development Funds. The developments financess making panchayet and NGOs are grabbed by the Maoists in collusively with the elective rural organic structure members.
( vitamin D ) Extortion of illegal mineworkers in Orissa, Jharkhand and West Bengal and paper Millss and inter-state transporters in Maharashtra.
( vitamin E ) Collection of fee for declaration of personal and local differences.
27. Outgo of Funds. The extorted money is spent on the followers: –
Care of Committees and Technical Mechanism.
( B ) Military Needs.
( I ) Care and direction, weariness demands and preparation of PLGA forces.
( two ) Purchase of weaponries, ammo and explosives, vehicles and uniforms.
( three ) Production and R & A ; D of weaponries, ammo, communications, intelligence, logistics, supply, medical specialties and other such of import sections.
( degree Celsius ) Political and ideological preparation of Maoists.
( vitamin D ) Publication of radical literature and propaganda.
( vitamin E ) Boosting urban webs.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Contending tribunal instances for captive companions, gaol disbursals and fiscal aid to households of jailed/ killed companions.
( g ) Monthly wage to Maoist cell.
( H ) Investing in gold and other assets like land.
Government ‘s Approach to Decide the LWE Problem in Rural Areas
28. The Government ‘s attack is to cover with LWE activities in a holistic mode, in the countries of security, development, rights of local communities, betterment in administration and public perceptual experience. 83 affected Districts in nine States have been taken up for particular attending on planning, execution and monitoring of the security state of affairs and development strategies.
29. Security Related Measures.
( a ) Modernization of State Police. Fundss have been allotted to States to overhaul their constabulary forces in footings of modern arms, latest communicating equipment, mobility and other substructure.
( B ) Security Related Expenditure ( SRE ) Scheme. Assistance is provided for repeating outgo associating to insurance, preparation and operational demands of security forces, as besides for LWE cells who surrender in conformity with the resignation and rehabilitation policy of the concerned State Government, community policing, security related substructure by small town defense mechanism commissions and promotion stuff. A budget estimation of Rs. 250 crore was provisioned in 2011-12 under the strategy.
( degree Celsius ) Deployment of Central Armed Police Forces ( CAPFs ) . 74 battalions of CAPFs and Commando Battalions for Resolute Action ( CoBRA ) squads are presently deployed for helping the State Police in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
( vitamin D ) India Reserve ( IR ) Battalions. 37 India Reserve ( IR ) battalions were sanctioned to nine naxal affected States, of which 34 have been raised. The IR Battalion which have non been raised, one each in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand and Maharashtra has been converted into Specialized India Reserve Battalion ( SIRB ) . Besides, Government has approved raising of 10 new SIRBs in the LWE States of Bihar ( 2 ) , Chhattisgarh ( 2 ) , Jharkhand ( 1 ) , Madhya Pradesh ( 1 ) , Odisha ( 3 ) and West Bengal ( 1 ) to be raised during 2011-12 to 2013-14.
( vitamin E ) CoBRA Battalions. Ten Battalions of Specialized Force trained and equipped for pacification and jungle-warfare operations, named as CoBRA have been raised as a portion of the CRPF during the period from 2008-09 to 2010-11.
( degree Fahrenheit ) CIAT Schools. During the 11th Plan period, a strategy was approved to put up 20 Counter Insurgency and Anti Terrorist ( CIAT ) Schools in LWE affected States, 04 each in the States of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha and Assam. In these Schools constabularies forces will be trained for battling terrorism/ naxalism.
( g ) Scheme for Particular Infrastructure. The Scheme for Particular Infrastructure in LWE affected States was approved in the 11th Plan, with an allotment of Rs. 500 crore, to provide to critical substructure spreads, which can non be covered under the bing strategies. These could associate to demands of mobility for the police/ security forces by upgrading bing roads/tracks in unaccessible countries, provide secure bivouacing evidences and helipads at strategic locations in remote and interior countries, steps to heighten security in regard of constabulary stations/outposts located in vulnerable countries, etc.
( H ) Recruitment in CAPFs. In order to ablactate away the possible young person from the way of combativeness or Left Wing Extremism, enlisting guidelines have been revised to allow 40 % enlisting in CAPFs from the boundary line countries and countries affected by combativeness or LWE.
( J ) Fortified Police Stations. The Cardinal Government has started a new strategy to help the State Governments in construction/ strengthening of 400 Fortified Police Stations @ Rs. Two crore each in LWE affected Districts on 80:20 footing over and above the bing allotments.
30. Development Related Measures
( a ) Monitoring of Implementation of Flagship Programmes. The Planning Commission has been supervising execution of Flagship Programmes in focal point territories affected by LWE and besides reexamining the advancement of execution of the undermentioned strategies: –
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana ( PMGSY ) .
National Rural Health Mission ( NRHM ) .
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act ( MGNREGA ) .
( V ) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan ( SSA ) .
( six ) National Rural Drinking Water Programme ( NRDWP ) .
( seven ) Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana ( RGGVY ) .
( eight ) Integrated Child Development Services ( ICDS ) .
( nine ) Indira Awaas Yojana ( IAY ) .
( ten ) Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers ( Recognition of Forest Rights ) Act, 2006.
( B ) Integrated Action Plan ( IAP ) . The purpose of this enterprise is to supply public substructure and services in 60 LWE affected/contiguous Districts. This Scheme has been extended to 18 more LWE affected Districts, taking the entire coverage to 78 Districts. Rs. 1,090 crore was been released so far during the twelvemonth 2011-12.
( degree Celsius ) Road Requirement Plan. The Ministry of Road Transport & A ; Highways has been implementing the undertaking bing Rs. 7,300 crore for LWE countries, under which major roads critical for connectivity in these countries have been taken up.
( vitamin D ) Provision of financess on a 100 % grant footing for constitution of inns for Scheduled Tribe misss and male childs every bit good as Ashram Schools in Tribals sub-plan countries.
( vitamin E ) The Ministry of Environment and Forests has given general blessing under subdivision 2 of the Forest ( Conservation ) Act, 1980 for recreation of forest land in LWE affected countries from 1.00 hour angle to 5.00 hour angle for activities like schools, dispensaries/hospitals, electrical and telecommunication lines, imbibing H2O, water/rain H2O reaping constructions, minor irrigation canal, non-conventional beginnings of energy, skill upgradation/ vocational preparation centre, power sub-stations, rural roads, communicating stations ; and patrol constitutions like constabularies stations/outposts/border outposts/ ticker towers in sensitive countries and laying of optical fibre overseas telegrams, telephone lines & A ; imbibing H2O supply lines.
( degree Fahrenheit ) The Ministry of Environment and Forests have besides decided that no compensatory afforestation in stead of the forest land diverted in conformity with the above said general blessing shall be insisted upon for 60 IAP Districts.
( g ) IAY. Rs. 462.04 crore was released in 2011-12 to LWE affected territories. The ceiling of per unit cost of IAY house has been increased from Rs. 45,000 to Rs. 48,500 for LWE affected territories.
( H ) PESA. Effective Execution of the Provisions of the Panchayats ( Extension to the Scheduled Areas ) Act, 1996 ( PESA ) and the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers ( Recognition of Forest Rights ) Act, 2006 has been emphasized clip and once more with the State Governments concerned. The Ministry of Panchayati Raj has constituted a Committee under the Chairmanship of Member, Planing Commission to look into the facets of Minimum Support Price ( MSP ) , value add-on and selling of Minor Forest Produce ( MFP ) in Fifth Schedule Areas.
( J ) The judicial admission of 80 % use of financess for farther release of financess under Backward Regions Grant Fund ( BRGF ) has been revised to 60 % use of financess. Changes have been made to guarantee speedy release of financess from State to the local organic structures under BRGF.
31. Civic Action Programme. During the Fiscal twelvemonth 2011-12 an sum of Rs. 20 crore has been provided to CAPFs to set about Civic Action Programme in the LWE affected States. This is a successful strategy which aims to construct Bridgess between the local population and security forces.
32. Resignation and Rehabilitation Policy. The Guidelines for surrender-cum rehabilitation of Left Wing Extremists has been put in topographic point. The rehabilitation bundle, inter alia, includes a stipend of Rs. 2,000 for three old ages, vocational preparation, immediate grant of Rs. 1.5 hundred thousand and inducements for resignation of arms.
33. Cardinal Scheme for Assistance to Victims/ Family of Victims of Terrorist and Communal force. The wide purpose of the Scheme is to help households of victims of Terrorist, Communal and Naxal force. An sum of Rs. Three hundred thousand is given to the affected household under the strategy, irrespective of the figure of deceases in a household in a peculiar incident. However, if the breadwinner and the homeowner of a household die/are for good incapacitated in separate incidents/occasions the household would be entitled to acquire aid on each juncture. The aid given to the donees of naxal force under this strategy is in add-on to ex-gratia payment of Rs. One hundred thousand paid under SRE strategy.
Latest Trends of LWE
34. The Maoists have refused to take part in the democracy or undertake peace negotiations with the Government of India. They aim to convey a cardinal alteration in the nature of Indian province by following the scheme of a drawn-out armed battle which entails constructing up of bases in rural and distant countries and transforming them foremost in guerrilla zones and liberated zones, so carry oning country wise ictuss and circling metropoliss and eventually prehending political power and accomplishing nation-wide triumph. The recent tendencies to carry through this docket are explained below: –
( a ) Turning Militarisation. CPI ( Maoist ) has achieved mastery over usage of IEDs and gunshot with procurance of sophisticated arms and intensive preparation. The expanded cell engages security forces in drawn-out brushs countering the rules of guerrilla tactics.
( B ) Urbanization. Since 2007, there is a sudden jet in Maoist activities in urban Centres. Arrest of senior Maoist leaders from Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bhubneshwar, Raipur and many other metropoliss indicate a important displacement in thet scheme. The college pupils of Maharashtra and West Bengal have reportedly been targeted by the Maoists to increase their ideological presence in metropoliss.
( degree Celsius ) Alliances with Islamist/ Northeastern Militant Organisations. Maoists are making out to other hawkish administrations active in J & A ; K and North East India for better weaponries, ammo and ideological support. Army intelligence is reported to hold proved a close connexion between the Maoists and the terrorist organisation Lashkar-e-Taiba ( LeT ). Besides, Maoists are learnt to hold fraternal ties with 21 groups spread over as many states across the Earth stretching from Peru to New Zealand.
( vitamin D ) Media Management. Maoist rational support is on the rise amongst academicians and militants. They are progressively acquiring involved with diverse issues of local, regional, national and international importance. They have been back uping demands for separate provinces like Telengana and Vidarbha with an oculus to the finally puting up of a Communist province in India.
CHAPTER – Three
Urbanization OF LWE
“ The importance of the urban battle is extraordinary ” .A
– Che Guevara
35. The infiltration of naxalites from Compact Revolutionary Zone ( CRZ ) to urban Centres of India is the latest development in Maoist scheme. While enlisting of cell for military activities is focussed on rural belts of India, the metropoliss have become their marks for enlisting of sympathizers and logistic support. In 2007, two senior members of CPI ( Maoist ) were arrested in Mumbai transporting modern arms and utilizing metropolis as their base for operations. In 2008, about 400 Rebels attacked the urban towns of Daspalla and Nayagarh in Orissa.In Sep 2009, Naxalite leader Kobad Ghandy was arrested in Delhi while trying to earn support from pupils, bookmans and workers. In 2011, a group of college pupils was arrested in Pune for distributing naxal political orientation through street dramas and musical programmes.
36. The CPI ( Maoist ) has come out with two paperss – Scheme and Tacticss of Indian Revolution, 2004 and Urban Perspective: Our Work in Urban Areas, 2007 – ordering their philosophy, scheme and tactics, particularly for urban Centres. The Union Ministry of Home Affairs stated in Lok Sabha on 13 Dec 2011 that naxalites of CPI ( Maoist ) have established a steadfast base in the Golden Corridor Area. This displacement in scheme and hardening of urban support presents a new tendency of the LWE and an array of new challenges for the Government of India.
Features of Urban India
37. UrbanisationA inA IndiaA was chiefly caused after independency, due to acceptance of assorted system of economic system by the state which gave rise to the development of private sector. The chief causes ofA urbanisationA in India are: –
( a ) Expansion in authorities services, as a consequence ofA Second World War.
( B ) Migration of people fromA PakistanA afterA divider of India.
( degree Celsius ) TheA Industrial Revolution.
( vitamin D ) Eleventh five twelvemonth program that aimed atA urbanisationA for the economic development ofA India.
( vitamin E ) Economic chances are merely one ground people move into metropoliss.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Infrastructure installations in the urban countries.
( g ) Growth ofA private sectorA after 1990.
38. In footings of urban population distribution, India will be chiefly dominated by the 11 metropoliss identified as Mega metropoliss ( population above 4.0 million ) , which are as under: –
Table 1: Projection OF POPULATION IN MEGA CITIES
Inch 2026 ( IN MILLION )
Beginning: Census of India, 2001 and World Cities, UN-Habitat, 2008-09
39. Features of Urban Areas. City forms the cardinal point of urban sociology. A topographic point is lawfully made a metropolis by a declaration by a competent authorization. Sorokin and Zimmerman enumerate eight features in which the urban universe differs from the rural universe. These are: –
( a ) Occupation.
( B ) Environment.
( degree Celsius ) Size of community.
( vitamin D ) Density of population.
( vitamin E ) Heterogeneity.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Social distinction and stratification.
( g ) Mobility.
( H ) System of interactions.
40. Social Effectss of Urbanisation in India. Urbanization has far making effects on larger social procedure and constructions. The undermentioned societal effects have direct bearing on spread of LWE in urban countries: –
( a ) Family and Kinship. There is a break of the bonds of community and the migrator faces the job to replace old relationships with new 1s and to happen a satisfactory agency of go oning relationship with those left buttocks.
( B ) Caste System. Caste is a rural phenomenon whereas category is urban and that with urbanisation, caste transforms itself into category. But it is necessary to observe that the caste system exists in metropoliss every bit much as it does in small towns although there are important organizational differences.
( degree Celsius ) Status of Women. The position of urban adult females, because of being relatively educated and broad, is higher than that of rural adult females. Increasing figure of adult females have taken to white-collar occupations and entered different professions.
( vitamin D ) Migration and Housing. Migration has become a uninterrupted procedure impacting the societal, economic and cultural lives of the villagers. The inordinate migration from rural countries and unpreparedness of metropoliss to suit the migrators has resulted in big slums in mega metropoliss. In some places, five to six individuals live in one room.
Need for Urbanisation of LWE
41. The CPI ( Maoist ) has decided to distribute its tentacles in urban countries for the undermentioned grounds: –
( a ) Break of the province power and the administrative machinery of the authorities.
( B ) Opportunity to act upon the extremely concentrated working category to foster their motion.
( degree Celsius ) Availability of cells and leading, holding assorted types of capablenesss, indispensable for the people ‘s war and for the constitution of liberated countries.
( vitamin D ) Exploitation of dialectical relationship between the development of the urban motion and the development of the armed agricultural radical war.
( vitamin E ) Logistic Support.
( I ) Supplies or contacts for supplies of weaponries and ammo, trim parts, medical supplies, etc. are merely available in the urban countries.
( two ) Technical aid in the signifier of fixs and care of combat, communicating and other equipment of the PLGA, development of new engineerings for the people ‘s war are easy available in urban Centres.
( three ) Propaganda and publications to carry through the demands of the rural motion is besides available in the urban Centres.
Maoists ‘ Mission in Urban Centres
42. The mission of Maoists in urban Centres is “ To make both unfastened and clandestine urban reserves that will provide cell to beef up ‘people ‘s war in rural countries ‘ and assist make liberated zones ” .
Urban Tasks of CPI ( Maoist )
43. The undermentioned urban undertakings were decided upon by the CPI ( Maoist ) : –
( a ) To acquire specialization in urban work, depute naxal forces and leading in a clip edge programme.
( B ) Develop the category struggles in the urban country by concentrating chiefly on the on the job category. Develop the secret web in the urban countries and construct a powerful motion of the workers: specially in the nucleus sector.
( degree Celsius ) Build a huge pupil and young person motion which will move as a large recruiting land for the party.
( vitamin D ) Build up a strong urban radical motion oriented towards people ‘s war.
Targets of Urban Perspective Plan of CPI ( Maoist )
44. The naxals have targeted following religious order of the society in urban countries in the recent yesteryear: –
( a ) Students administrations.
( B ) Workers in unorganised sectors.
( degree Celsius ) Tea plantation laborers of Northeast.
( vitamin D ) Engineers.
( vitamin E ) Sanitation workers.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Intelligentsia.
( g ) Slums in towns and metropoliss.
46. The commonalty between mega metropoliss mentioned in Table 1 and the mark cities/ countries of urban LWE high spots the thorough survey carried out by the naxals before choosing the marks for urban LWE.
Maoist Activities in Urban Areas
47. The undermentioned notable activities have taken topographic point in urban countries which clearly indicate the urbanization of LWE: –
( a ) Golden Corridor Area.
( I ) Angelo Sontakke alias Sunita Patil, a former instructor, secretary of ‘Golden Corridor Committee ‘ was arrested in Thane on 25 Apr 2011.
( two ) CPI ( Maoist ) PB Member and so Maharashtra State Committee Secretary, Sridhar Krishnan Srinivasan and Vernon Gonsalves, a member of Maharashtra State Committee were arrested in Mumbai on 20 Sep 2009.
( three ) Seven members of Kabir Kala Manch – a group of pupils executing cultural activities – were booked by Anti – Terrorism Squad in Apr and May 2011 for distributing naxal political orientation.
( four ) 10 -15 hoteliers from Chandpur metropolis and slum inhabitants from Mumbai were recruited by the naxals.
( V ) Arms workshop was busted in Neral, Raigarh territory in Mar 2011. This workshop was reported to be providing weaponries for urban program in western belt.
( B ) Delhi.
( I ) Kobad Ghandy, in charge of South Western Regional Bureau and Sub-Committee on Mass Organisations ( SUCOMO ) , was arrested from New Delhi in Sep 2009.
( two ) Minister of State for Home, Jitendra Singh told the Rajya Sabha in Aug 2012 that “ A figure of ‘front administrations ‘ of the banned CPI-Maoist had organised demonstrations/agitations back uping the cause of the workers of the Maruti mill. Their aim was basically to work the state of affairs to derive a bridgehead among the working category in the National Capital part ( NCR ) ” .
( degree Celsius ) Kolkata.
( I ) Kanchan alias Sudip Chongdar, West Bengal State Secretary of CPI ( Maoist ) was arrested in Dec 2010 from Kolkata.
( two ) State commission leader Telugu Deepak alias Venkateshwar Reddy was arrested in Mar 2010 from Kolkata.
( vitamin D ) Chennai. Jayant alias Kunal, accused for slaying of CPI-ML Jharkhand MLA Mahendra Singh, was arrested from Chennai in Aug 2007.
( vitamin E ) Bastar. Ghassu alias Rajberia, president of Jantana Sarkar of Hareli, was arrested from Bastar in Sep 2011.
48. Main Objectives of CPI ( Maoist ) in Urban Area. Work in the metropoliss and towns involve a figure of undertakings. All these undertakings can be combined under the undermentioned caputs or aims: –
( a ) Mobilise and Organise the Masses. This is the chief activity of the Party. It is the Party ‘s undertaking to organize the on the job category, every bit good as other categories and subdivisions like the semi-proletariat, pupils, in-between category employees, intellectuals, etc. It besides has the undertaking of covering with the jobs of particular societal groups like adult females, dalits, and spiritual minorities and mobilising them for the radical motion.
( B ) Build the United Front. This involves the undertaking of uniting the working category, constructing worker-peasant solidarity and confederation, unifying with other categories in the metropoliss, constructing the foreparts against globalization, against Hindu fascism, against repression, etc.
( degree Celsius ) Military Tasks. While the PGA and PLA in the countryside execute the chief military undertakings, the urban motion excessively performs undertakings complementary to the rural armed battle. These involve the sending of cell to the countryside, infiltration of enemy ranks, forming in cardinal industries, sabotage actions in coordination with the rural armed battle, logistical support, etc.
Chapter – Four
FUTURE OF URBAN LWE
The concluding aim of the revolution is the gaining control of the metropoliss, the enemy ‘s chief bases, and this aim can non be achieved without
equal work in the metropoliss.
Mao Tse Tung
49. The Maoists buttocks that soon, India has a larger proportion of the population in urban countries and a much larger working category than at the clip of the Chinese revolution. This increases the comparative importance of urban work in the peculiar conditions of the Indian revolution.
50. It is reasonably easy for the Maoists to set up bases in urban countries. As a well-known authorization of the Maoist motion, K. Srinivas Reddy said “ because of the namelessness it accords, it becomes easy for the Maoists to remain and run in urban Centres ” . An urban presence serves the Maoists in supplying remainder and convalescence, providing to their logistics demands and mobilization ( aiming pupils, young person and industrial workers ) .
51. The current tendency of naxal activities in urban countries brings out the assorted types of mass administrations of urban motion. These administrations are: –
( a ) Secret Revolutionary Mass Organisations, These organisations remain purely belowground and propagate the Party ‘s radical line among the multitudes bestiring them for armed battle. They openly call upon the multitudes to take part in the people ‘s war, propagate the cardinal undertaking drawn up by the Party at any given clip, in secret form the multitudes into battles and straight function as the base for enlisting for the Party and the people ‘s war. They perform the of import undertaking of propagating the Party line among assorted subdivisions of the multitudes.
( B ) Open and Semi-Open Revolutionary Mass Organisations, They openly propagate the political relations of New Democratic Revolution and fix the people for armed battle.
( degree Celsius ) Open Legal Mass Organisations. They are formed on an expressed political footing with some or all facets of an anti-imperialist, anti-feudal programme, and with a programme of action and signifiers of battle that loosely fall within a legal model.
Factors Effecting Urban LWE in India
52. The undermentioned factors are forestalling the spread of LWE in urban countries: –
( a ) Parliamentary Democracy. Democratic party-system is good entrenched in the metropoliss and urban countries and hence it is highly boring to dent the political ethos in metropoliss and towns.
( B ) Administration. Strong administrative machinery precludes the chances of spreading of urban LWE.
( degree Celsius ) Industrialization. The trade brotherhoods, which are possible fertile parts of agitating dissatisfaction amongst the urban labor ; already has established political parties ensconced in.
( vitamin D ) Infrastructure. The presence of the Maoists in cardinal industries, like defense mechanism production, telecommunication, etc is hapless.
( vitamin E ) Over Cautiousness. The failure of urban motion in 1972, during stage I of LWE, has imposed a serious cautiousness in the leading of LWE.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Lack in Leadership. The riddance of leading in urban countries has caused a reverse to the LWE urban motion.
53. The undermentioned factors are favoring the spread of LWE in urban countries: –
( a ) Urbanization Pattern of India. The slum countries of urban offer an chance of implementing the ‘ghettoisation ‘ scheme of LWE.
( B ) Anonymity. The immense population base of urban countries affords namelessness to the naxals to silently transport out their activities.
( degree Celsius ) Unemployment. The unemployment in India is non merely restricted to rural countries, it has spread its tentacles every bit in the urban countries, particularly with the economic recession since 2008.
( vitamin D ) Migration. The uncontrolled migration from rural to urban countries has stretched the capacity of metropoliss, taking to corruptness and offense, deficiency of basic comfortss cum indispensable services, which acts as a accelerator to worsen the struggle state of affairs.
( vitamin E ) Religious Divide. The naxals may work the divide between the Hindus and Muslims to make unrest and propagate their political orientation.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Education System. The current instruction system in India provides an chance to naxals for working the pupil base in advancing their activities.
( g ) Support from Jehadi Terrorists. The jehadi terrorists have established bases in urban countries, which can be utilised by the naxals to give drift to urban LWE.
Likely Strategy of LWE in Urban countries
54. Based on the factors set uping spread of LWE in urban countries, the late released paperss of CPI ( Maoist ) and survey of latest tendencies, the awaited scheme of naxals is as under: –
( a ) Patient attack and turning away of direct confrontation with the province forces.
( B ) Panic acts in metropoliss are unlike as it will ablactate away the support of population to LWE.
( degree Celsius ) Secret activites will be carried out to solidifying their bases in the urban countries.
( vitamin D ) Establish urban bases for providing trim parts, medical specialties, weaponries, recruits and ideologists to the rural guerilla zones.
( vitamin E ) Venture into cyber warfare to bring down amendss to the province organic structure.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Propaganda through student-worker administrations.
( g ) Penetration into white-collar occupations, clerisy and young person to prolong urban insurgence.
55. After analyzing the urbanization form in India, it emerges out that the naxals have to confront challenge at all degrees to prolong in urban countries. The uninterrupted riddance of CPI ( Maoist ) leading from urban countries indicates the infestation of naxals in these countries, nevertheless, the timely action by the constabulary, on dependable intelligence, has been able to maintain the spread of urban LWE under a cheque. The present scheme of Government of India to cover with naxalism, has been successful, nevertheless, execution of advanced methods are ineluctable for contending naxalism in the state.
Chapter – Volt
RECOMMENDED STRATEGY TO CONTAIN SPREAD OF LWE
IN URBAN AREAS
Naxalism today afflicts the Central India parts where the majority of India ‘s mineral wealth prevarications and if we don’tA control NaxalismA we have to state adieu to our state ‘s aspirations to prolong growing rate.
– Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, 24 Dec 2010
56. Naxal force has been steadily taging its presence in urban countries despite being a rural phenomenon. However, given the difference in societal cloth and socio-economic conditions between rural and urban countries, the naxals are fighting to win delve their heels in the urban countries. Inspite of failure of naxal urbanization in 1972 and the current jobs, their doggedness to perforate into urban countries is amply clear.
57. There is a demand for a proper apprehension of the political orientation and schemes of the naxalites to develop an equal response mechanism. Maoist menace demands to be tackled on a high precedence footing before it assumes unwieldy proportions. The Government ‘s holistic attack in covering with rural LWE – coincident addressing of the issues of security, development, rights of local communities, betterment in administration and public perceptual experience – has shown positive consequences in the last twelvemonth. The authorities needs to set about steps to aim naxal intellectuals in order to procrastinate their incursion in urban countries. The recommended scheme for incorporating the spread of LWE is given out in wining paragraphs.
58. Strengthening Intelligence. Coordinated attempt by Centre and province bureaus and existent clip intelligence sharing is a pre-requisite to look into spread of LWE in urban countries. The benefits of existent clip intelligence sharing in anti naxal operations in rural countries are apparent from the diminution of LWE in the CRZ. Conventional methods of garnering human intelligence ( HUMINT ) and proficient intelligence ( TECHINT ) may non give coveted consequences in urban countries. Owing to the planetary links of CPI ( Maoist ) , regional and international networking of friendly intelligence bureaus is a must.
59. The current counter-terrorism construction consists of the Multi Agency Centre ( MAC ) and Subsidiary Multi Agency Centres ( SMAC ) , NationalA Investigation AgencyA ( NIA ) and National Security Guards ( NSG ) . The integrating with National Intelligence Grid ( NATGRID ) and CrimeA and CriminalA Tracking Network SystemA ( CCTNS ) will further polish the intelligence web in the state.
60. Designation of Perpetrators of LWE. Due to namelessness and high denseness of population, the urban countries are suited for insurgence. The activation of mass administrations like trade brotherhoods, associations and NGOs by the naxalites is an emerging phenomenon and is required to invariably watched. The leading and cell of urban LWE must be identified and kept under watchfulness.
61. Target Hardening. The sensitive marks must be put under surveillance and protection. CCTV, metal and explosive sensors and X-ray scanners should be installed throughout the urban country, get downing with high incident countries and key installations. The latest engineering to observe leery activity and control harm should be put in cardinal topographic points.
62. Community Policing. The urban LWE can be efficaciously fought by affecting the populace. This includes making social consciousness to maintain a alert oculus on probationary or errant behaviour in the vicinity and sharing of information of leery motions with the jurisprudence implementing bureaus.
63. Cyber Cells. Highly advanced cyber offense units must be setup to counter the cyber menace emanating from tech-savvy urban naxalites.
64. Empowering Municipal Corporations. The metropoliss are jostling with their ain jobs of over population, scarce substructure, offense and corruptness. The naxals have developed wherewithal to work these defects and distribute their influence. There is a demand to better public services and safety in metropoliss to forestall the naxalites from making ghettoisation and back up their mass administrations.
Disincentive and Operational Schemes
65. Specialised Counter-Insurgency Forces. The success of Greyhounds of Andhra Pradesh in commanding rural naxalism can be replicated with certain alterations in urban countries. Every province should hold its counter-insurgence ranger force, akin to National Security Guard ( NSG ) at Centre. This force must be equipped with state-of-the-art engineering and equipment and trained for the specialized undertakings.
66. State Police. The jurisprudence & A ; order topic will ever stay with the province authorities and LWE is soon being classified as a jurisprudence & A ; order job. So, province constabulary forces must be equipped and trained to set about the mantle of efficaciously battling the menace of urban LWE. Besides, the lack in constabulary cell should be filled up at the earliest to better the constabulary to public ratio in all LWE affected provinces.
67. Anti-Terror Laws.. National Counter Terrorism Centre ( NCTC ) is indispensable to be implemented and LWE activities should be brought under its legal power. At the same clip, a seamless integrating of NCTC with NIA is every bit indispensable.
68. Lucrative Resignation Policy. A appropriately moneymaking resignation policy be introduced at centre degree for actuating the naxals who have joined the LWE due to irresistible impulses and non the ideological grounds. Rehabilitation of surrendered naxals must be carried out after leaving suited capacity accomplishments to them.
69. Development of Urban and Rural Areas. To relieve the built-in defects of the mega metropoliss, the development activities of the metropoliss must be taken up on precedence. The enlargement of metropoliss to suit the migrators will besides ease out the force per unit area from nucleus of the metropoliss. The rural countries be developed aboard to forestall hegira of population towards metropoliss in hunt of the employment and educational chances. New sub-urban countries may be created in the locality of rural countries to alleviate the mega metropoliss of suiting people beyond its capableness.
70. Education. Higher instruction installations must be created at tehsil/ block degree. Focus on accomplishment development instruction must be diverted for enabling the young person and middle aged in get downing little graduated table industries. Particular higher instruction loans be sanctioned for naxal hit countries.
71. Employment. The educated unemployed young person are most vulnerable for enlisting in naxal administrations. Generation of occupations through NREGA has genuinely affected a batch of lives, nevertheless, it is still deficient. Engagement of work forces and adult females in local industries and puting up of new industries in rural belts will prosecute the young person.
72. IAP. The efficient execution of flagship programmes under IAP will show the ‘Will of authorities ” towards successful execution of its programs and solidify peoples ‘ religion in the administration.
Chapter – Six
Ideologically, though the epicentre of the left wing extremism for the most portion is rural, it is the urban clerisy that provides legitimacy, authorization
and moral force to an otherwise defeatist political orientation.
73. The LWE in India is an result of socio-economic repression of a section of rural society, nevertheless, the emerging face of LWE shows its presence in urban countries. The being and features of urban countries of India do non bode with the conditions desirable for shooting of such a motion. The urban population chiefly consists of people migrated from rural countries in the pursuit of employment and higher surveies. These people hardly have an purpose to venture into anything other than their ain dockets. So, where does the naxal political orientation finds its marks? LWE does n’t happen the marks but creates its marks from the oppressed, poorly/ under unemployed and the stamp minded young person in urban countries.
74. Urban insurgence has adversely affected the states across the Earth like Peru, Venezuela, Nepal, Chechnya and most late Iraq. The internal convulsion affects the societal security, economic prosperity, international standing and overall growing of the state. The state of affairs of LWE in rural India is a affair of serious concern, nevertheless, the LWE unease can be controlled in following seven to ten old ages provided the current attack of Government of India – security and development – is smartly followed alongwith conjunct attempts of single provinces. Capacity edifice to look into the current force will besides be start point in forestalling the spread of LWE to other countries.
75. The infestation of naxals in urban countries is an indicant of despair of naxalites to deviate the attending of security bureaus and give LWE a new dimension. The success of Maoism in China can non be templated to India due to the difference in manner of administration, mentality of Indian population and the prevalence of other insurgences in India.
76. Global linkages of Indian Maoists have given the LWE much desired visibleness and propaganda in the international sphere. Besides, the links with terrorists groups of Jammu & A ; Kashmir and Northeast might alter the doctrine of LWE in urban countries. The internal security of India mostly hinges on the manner LWE is handled in the following few old ages.
77. Future surveies on linkages – external and internal – of naxalites may be undertaken to convey out the efficaciousness of current counte- naxal scheme of Government of India and urge alterations and extra steps for a successful counter- naxal scheme for India.