...The Big Business of Dairy Farming : Big Trouble for Cows June 11, 2007 Most people are aware that dairies in the United States bear little resemblance to the idyllic pastures of yesteryear. As with other branches of animal agriculture, such as chicken and egg production, hog farming, and beef production as well as crop growing small, traditional dairy farms have been steadily pushed out of the business by large agribusiness concerns. Since the mid-20th century, the growth of factory farming has led to the transformation of agriculture, forcing small farmers to œget big or get out. Small farms cannot compete with big agricultural firms because they cannot achieve the same economies of scale. The American dairy industry annually produces about 20 billion gallons of raw milk, which is processed and sold as butter, cheese, ice cream, and fluid milk. This amounts to about INR 1,739.31 billion in sales each year. There are between 65,000 and 81,000 U.S. dairies, yet corporate consolidation means that about half of the milk sold comes from just under 4 percent of the farms. While the large number of brands and labels on store shelves would seem to indicate a diversity of sources, in reality many of these brands are owned by a handful of large corporations. For example, the countrys largest dairy producer, Dean Foods, owns 40 or so brands, 3 of them representing organic milk. As the number of dairy farms has decreased, the...
1463 WordsNov 5th, 20116 Pages
INTRODUCTION: SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOOD
India’s strong economic growth has consistently tried to include the rural population, which is concentrated in areas where rain fed agriculture is the main economic activity. However poverty persists because of limited and inequitable access to productive resources, such as land, water, improved inputs and technologies and microfinance, as well as vulnerability to drought and other natural disasters. Low levels of literacy and skills conspire to keep people in the poverty trap, preventing them from claiming their basic rights or from embarking on new activities to earn income or build assets.
These multifarious and all pervasive issues required a common national effort for solution. The…show more content…
The different types of capital involved are:
1) Natural capital: the natural resource stocks (soil, water, air, genetic resources etc.) and environmental services from which resource flows and services useful for livelihoods are derived.
2) Economic or financial capital: the capital base (cash, credit, savings and other economic assets) which are essential for the pursuit of any livelihood strategy.
3) Human capital: the skills, knowledge, ability to labor and good health and physical capability important for the successful pursuit of any different livelihood strategies.
4) Social capital: the social resources (networks, social claims, social relations, affiliations, associations) upon which people draw when pursuing different livelihood strategies requiring coordinated actions.
Apart from the aforementioned categories, there can be other forms of capital as well. In order to create livelihoods, therefore, people must combine the ‘capital’ endowments that they have access to and control over. These may be made up of personal capabilities, tangible assets and intangible assets.
LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES: PORTFOILIOS AND PATHWAYS
The three broad clusters of livelihood strategies are identified viz. agricultural intensification/extensification, livelihood diversification and migration. Identifying what